The dramatic scope of the 2001 attacks heightened fears that additional attacks might follow, and quickly helped transform U.S. intelligence agencies into agencies aimed overwhelmingly at preventing another September 11. Analysts dedicated to a wide range of specialty areas were put on terrorism detail; and, fueled by a budget expansion, the intelligence workforce grew rapidly through direct hiring and outsourcing. Further structural modifications expanded the scope of domestic data collection at state and national levels and encouraged greater information sharing. As we now know, commitment to preventing further attacks led to departures from legal and ethical norms in the detention and interrogation of individuals both inside and beyond the United States, as well as to the lowering of standards for the treatment of the personal information of U.S. citizens. The tremendous patriotic resonance of the global war on terror narrative made it easier for the intelligence community to justify their excesses as legitimate and necessary.
Moreover, the prevailing narrative, as promoted by the Bush administration, arguably overwhelmed the capacity of the intelligence community to bring to bear its normal standards of discrimination. Narrative itself plays a special role in the intelligence profession for, despite efforts to make it a science, intelligence is in large part the art of creating a compelling story by connecting disparate pieces of data in a logical sequence. To do so well requires the capacity to see data dispassionately, knowledgeably, and with an awareness of one's own frames of reference. The narrative power of the global war on terror, however, was so great that it promoted the ordering of data in its own terms. Without meaningful historical, socioeconomic, or even geographical context for Islam—apart from a fetishistic focus on Islamic precepts, whether or or —analysts were poorly equipped to discern any story other than the one they had already been handed, which cast terrorism as an outgrowth of extremist theology.
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Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: A History of the CIA (New York: 2007), p. 247; George W. Allen, None So Blind: A Personal Account of Intelligence Failure in Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2001); Michael Clodfelter, The Limits of Air Power: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (London: The Free Press, 1989), 134; and Barry Miller, “Litton Develops Fighter Air Data Systems,” Aviation Week, September 19, 1960, p. 95.
Such harsh penalties undoubtedly dissuaded many GIs from directly challenging military authority, but other ways were found to debate and protest the war. With the support of local peace groups, coffee houses sprang up near military bases where GIs could freely exchange ideas. GIs began publishing off-base newspapers, one of the first being Vietnam GI in late 1967. More newspapers followed. Cortright counts a total of 259 over the course of the war, although many lasted only a few issues due to personnel relocation. In December 1967, the American Servicemen’s Union (ASU) was founded by socialist Andy Stapp, who purposely entered the Army in order to organize among soldiers. ASU developed chapters in bases at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and Fort Benning, Georgia, and offered legal assistance to servicemen in support of GI rights. An increasing number of GIs also applied for C.O. status while in the service. Even if denied, their applications backed up the military courts and sometimes delayed deployment orders. At the Oakland Army Base, a primary embarkation point for Vietnam, the Pacific Counseling Service aided GIs in filling out C.O. applications, resulting in 1,200 soldiers successfully delaying their deployment orders by March 1, 1970.
The global war on terror has been a boon for publishing. Of the scores of books written from the sidelines by proselytizers, pundits, and professors, and from the front by reporters and the military, a few stand out as lending intellectual gravitas andmoral weight to the dominant narrative. Princeton University's Bernard Lewis put an Ivy League stamp of approval on the war as a literal unfolding of the "clash of civilizations"—a term which Lewis had earlier coined (though it is most often associated with Harvard's Samuel Huntington). Lewis went on to legitimize the rhetorical question, "Why do they hate us?" with an answer in the form of , published in 2003. In his subsequent addresses at various think tanks, Lewis would repeatedly treat the West and Islam as opposing monoliths while playing on latent fears that Islam might be on the verge of undermining a presumably autonomous Western and European identity.
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In this essay we focus on how the global war on terror was constructed and how it has set down deep institutional roots both in government and popular culture. We take aim at those who would weave this narrative into the nation's identity by assigning it an iconographic status on par with national myths of manifest destiny and the frontier nation. And we conclude that, if we are to develop a new conceptual framework that is both operationally effective and consistent with democratic values and ideals, we must first revisit the assumptions of the war on terror narrative.
When writing a narrative essay, one might think of it as telling a story. These essays are often anecdotal, experiential, and personal—allowing students to express themselves in a creative and, quite often, moving ways.
The Vietnam War is a sensitive topic, especially because it only happened a couple of decades ago. It still affects the lives of many people who are alive today. The writer must make sure that their narrative essay is an accurate and respectful tribute to the war. While narratives talk about emotion and the drives behind each character, it is essential that there are historic facts that back it up. If the writer is not telling a story of their own, they should take great care to depict someone else’s story.
For an interesting essay, writers should focus on a single point of view for their narrative essay. In this case, it does not necessarily have to be the Western soldier. It could be a nurse who worked in the field, the wife of a veteran, or the viewpoint of a Vietnam civilian who experienced the war firsthand. The writer must think outside the box and decide on what would make an interesting. Additionally, they can write up a series of characters that add to the protagonist's story, each with their own backstory.
It is quite common for narrative essays to be written from the standpoint of the author; however, this is not the sole perspective to be considered. Creativity in narrative essays often times manifests itself in the form of authorial perspective.
Though lengthy descriptions are not necessary and often boring, using colorful language throughout the narrative is not. When writing about Vietnam, an individual must refer to the five major senses. They should consider the sights smells, sounds and feelings that people would have experienced there. Again, this is done most accurately with research, primarily from other Vietnamese fiction and personal recollections and experiences from veterans
A narrative essay is one that tells a story in such a way that the reader usually learns a lesson or gains valuable insight about a certain concept. When writing one about the Vietnam War, an individual should take caution about describing a time or place that they have not necessarily experienced themselves. The Vietnam War was a treacherous conflict between North and South Vietnam, with the United States being heavily involved. To write a narrative about it pays tribute to a crucial time in American and Vietnamese history.