: Critical decision making that requires criminal justice managers to combine coordinating, budgeting, planning and deliberative action into one fluid process.
: The ability for a criminal justice manager to assemble effective teams to successfully fulfill organizational goals.
: In Gullick's time, staffing pertained only to finding the right worker for the job.
The aim of this essay specifically is to discuss the functions of the police and how they actually fit with the objectives of the Criminal Justice System as a whole....
EXPLAINING POLICE BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATIONS AND CONTEXT 213mission plays an important part in the structuring of police work in modernAmerican departments" (Bittner, 1970:52). The roots of militarism extendwell back into the history of policing, and Klockars (1988) argued that theemergence of the military analogy served three important functions: (1) itconferred honor and respect on policing as an occupation, (2) its rhetoricalfocus on fighting a war on crime enabled police to attach a moral urgencyto their work, and (3) it sought to adjust the relationship between policechiefs and local politicians to resemble more closely the relationship be-tween military generals and national politicians. Yet it is also the case that the level of militarism is distributed un-equally, so that some police organizations are more militaristic than others(Kraska and Cubellis, 1997; Kraska and Kappeler, 1997), and the overalllevel of militarism in policing, both in the United States and abroad, isexpanding (Kopel and Blackman, 1997; Weber, 1999; Kraska, 1996, 2001;McCulloch, 2001). Kraska and his colleagues have noted an increase in thenumber of agencies with police paramilitary units. About 89 percent of thelarge agencies they surveyed reported having such a unit, up from 59 per-cent in 1982 and 78 percent in 1990. Furthermore, this trend is now mak-ing its way into routine patrol operations and into small town police de-partments (Kraska and Cubellis, 1997; Kraska and Kappeler, 1997; Weber,1999; McCulloch, 2001). Police are not only relying increasingly on the "lethal artifacts" of themilitary, but also on a variety of advanced nonlethal technologies (Haggertyand Ericson, 1999). These include sophisticated communications and sur-veillance technologies designed for the battlefield, but adapted for law en-forcement. Haggerty and Ericson note that the diffusion of military tech-nologies to civilian law enforcement defies an unconscious trickle-downexplanation. Rather, the diffusion is due to a conscious, direct effort on thepart of "powerful military/corporate interests...to justify the `dual-use' sta-tus of their technologies " (p. 248). This is one of many substantive areas inwhich private-market vendors appear to be influencing policing. Some sug-gest that the militarization of criminal justice agencies is a by-product of theemergence of the "criminal justice industrial complex," a term coined byRichard Quinney (1980) (Haggerty and Ericson, 2001; Kraska, 2001).Haggerty and Ericson (2001:54) describe Quinney's concern as with "thealliance being forged between the criminal justice establishment and corpo-rations that require markets for technologies of social control." The effects and extent of militarism must be examined much moreclosely, since the attacks of September 11 suggest that this trend will con-tinue. Police organizations around the nation are struggling to prepare them-selves for the possibility of future attacks, and some of these responses arelikely to be paramilitaristic.
EXPLAINING POLICE BEHAVIOR: ORGANIZATIONS AND CONTEXT 205was unable to detect in his analysis of the relationship between the use offield citations and court orders to reduce jail crowding. Relying on data from 58 California counties, Welsh (1993) tested thehypothesis that court orders to reduce jail overcrowding would expand theuse of citations and reduce the number of custodial arrests. While thesechanges occurred in some cases, Welsh was unable to find evidence of anaggregate change in police arrest and citation behaviors based on the court-ordered reductions in jail crowding. The scant research on this important question suggests that interorgani-zational effects appear to depend on the particular link in question. Forinstance, in Gardiner's study, court acquittal rates for traffic offenses arenot associated with police ticketing rates. But Van Dijk (1988) reports thatin Holland a change in prosecution policies regarding bicycle theft rever-berated through the system, subsequently changing police arresting andcharging decisions and, later, victimization rates. Research in this genreneeds to take into account the dynamic nature of systems, including feed-back processes. Intergovernmental Influences: State Legislation State legislation is logically an obvious source of influence on policeprograms and operations, in the sense that it provides mandates for action(e.g., state laws requiring arrests in domestic violence incidents), opportuni-ties or tools for action (e.g., state laws allowing for on-site revocation oflicenses of drivers found to exceed legal blood alcohol levels), and con-straints on action. That state legislation influences what local police do maytherefore be so obvious that it has not motivated as much research as hasother topics. However, there is some systematic, empirical research sup-porting the logical conclusion that state law influences what the police do. For example, Chaney and Saltzstein (1998), in a cross-sectional analy-sis of a national sample of municipal police departments, examined theextent to which state and city laws requiring the arrest of perpetrators ofdomestic violence actually affected policing activity in that regard. Theyfound that the existence of mandatory arrest laws do influence police arrestpatterns, at least in those situations in which violence was threatened. Simi-larly, Haider-Markel (2001), in a study based on survey data from policedepartments and district attorneys, found that the existence of a state hatecrime law influenced the perceived likelihood of police arrest in a hypo-thetical hate crime incident, as well as district attorney pursuit of such cases,although it did not influence the perceived likelihood that police officers onthe scene would classify the crime as a hate crime. The proposition that changes in the criminal justice system influencepolice behavior, sometimes in unintended and unanticipated ways, has not
204 FAIRNESS AND EFFECTIVENESS IN POLICING12,000 respondents in 3 metropolitan areas encompassing 24 jurisdictionsin 1977. About 6 percent said that they had a reason to complain about anaspect of police service in the preceding 12 months, and of those, 36 percenthad complained (half of those had reportedly called the police department).But the study could not examine whether the reporting rate was higher injurisdictions that provided for greater citizen involvement in complaint re-view. The popularity of citizen review and optimism about its benefits faroutstrip the empirical evidence that citizen review has salutary effects. The committee recommends that a program of rigorous evaluation re-search consider a wide variety of citizen review boards, assessing their im-pact on a range of police practices (but especially those features that arefrequent targets of citizens' complaints), controlling for the influence ofother institutions that might also be responsible for overseeing police integ-rity (e.g., the police organization itself and the courts). A comprehensiveevaluation would go beyond examining the effect of civilian review on com-plaints filed but would consider other data sources, such as citizen surveysof high-risk populations (e.g., arrestees and those interrogated during fieldstops) and direct field observation. Interorganizational Effects: Other Criminal Justice and Human Service Agencies Proposition 12: It is widely assumed that the police are part of a crimi- nal justice system in which policies and practices in one part of the system reverberate in many others. Changes in prosecutorial practices in charging and plea negotiations, penal policies, and correctional re- lease decisions all presumably have important implications for the po- lice work environment, some intended and some not. The available research is too scant to make generalizations about the nature and ex- tent of these influences. Most examinations of criminal justice influence focus on prosaic, butnonetheless powerful, effects. In his 1969 book, Traffic and the Police,Gardiner explored interagency variations in traffic citations, finding sub-stantial variation in citations for moving violations (as opposed to parkingviolations) in his two samples: a national sample of 508 police agencies anda sample of 180 Massachusetts cities and towns. He found that local courtrules about the appearance of officers at traffic ticket hearings had an effecton ticketing rates. Those jurisdictions requiring officers to appear at thenext available court hearing date had lower ticketing rates than those juris-dictions with more flexible courtroom procedures. This is one indication ofan interorganizational effect on police outputs, an effect that Feeney (1982)
Everyone who finds themselves on the opposing end of the Criminal Justice System is entitled to certain protections every step of the way, beginning even before the arrest; laws protect us from unreasonable investigative techniques, guarantee certain rights at point of arrest, and provide us with the right to counsel.
This course will explore traditional and modern theories of organizations, administration, management, and leadership. From these theories, a framework will be developed for understanding and analyzing organizations in general and criminal justice organizations specifically. Students will be able to apply the organizational theories to the administration of police agencies, courts, and correctional institutions. Further, the students will be able to apply these theories to the organizations in which they work and live.
Both models serve as a formal basis for the study of jobs, productivity, management styles, organizational rules, and worker performance within the criminal justice system.
LODESTAR, a management theory highlighting eight management functions including: Leading, organizing, deciding, evaluating, staffing, training, and allocating; also falls under the bureaucratic scientific umbrella and guides contemporary criminal justice management systems today.
Bureaucratic Scientific Management Timeline
Human Relations Model 1906-1987
This approach questioned the bureaucratic scientific model.
This short analysis will evaluate the main facts that have been affecting the criminal justice system for decades and have influenced the evolution the justice system is enduring in a changing society (Muraski, 2009)....
The purpose of this essay is to consider psychological research about the accuracy of eyewitness testimony and its placement in the criminal justice system.
1) What is conflict management? How does conflict management affect criminal justice organizations? Provide an example.
2) Describe the change and innovation processes in criminal justice organizations. Are the strategies used considered effective? Why or why not? What recommendations would you make to achieve maximum results from any upcoming change or innovation within a criminal justice organization?