Nurture Mario Puzo’s, Omerta, reflects the theory of Thomas Hobbes In the state of nature, where the theory states, that in the state of nature“…no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”(The Modern Age: Ideas In Western Civilization, Page 37-30) In Peter Cary’s, True History of the Kelly Gang, which conveys the theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains....
Those against it, in this case the side of nurture will addressed in ‘against the argument’, also defend their reasoning with ferocity but there are significantly less of them.
Intelligence provides a better understanding to the discussion of the nature-nurture debate. According to (Miele, 2002), various studies on intelligence of identical twins being rear apart had shown the result to be 0.78. Following that, the fact that correlations in IQ between parents and the adopted child is about 0.19, and the result between the adopted child and the natural children of the adoptive parents is about 0.32. Fisher (1918, as cited in Miele, 2002) calculated the correlation for any heritable trait on cases such as the identical twins. The reading would be 1.00 since the twins share the exact genes and for fraternal twins, the reading is 0.5. Surprisingly, the tests conducted on identical and fraternal twins who were rear apart reveal the following results. The higher one of the twins scored, the lower the other one gets. From this, (Miele, 2002) conclude that since the results is quite similar to the predictions, genetic factors do influence in human development.
Notwithstanding the valuable discovery of BRCA1, the "breast cancer gene," researchers insist the causes of cancer lie more with nurture than with nature.
on the other hand if you believe that your personality developed based on influences in your life beginning when you were a child then you believe in nurture.
Or has it developed over time in response to our experiences? Researchers on all sides of the nature vs nurture debate agree that the link between a gene and a behavior is not the same as cause and effect. While a gene may increase the likelihood that you'll behave in a particular way, it does not make people do things.
The history of nature-nurture debate started off with famous philosophers like John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau (Feldman, 1997). John Locke believed that human behavior is solely influenced by nurture. By this is meant that human were born with an empty brain and we learnt and developed through the experiences in life (Myers, 2000). In contrast, Jean Jacques Rousseau suggested that human development was due to individual’s genetic factors which means that human trait and behavior is more or less develop the moment of birth (Feldman, 1997). In the present time, psychologists share the same thinking that both nature and nurture interdependently rely on each other in human development (Westen, 2002). Clearly it can be seen that the concept of the debate had changed. Now, psychologists are more interested in to what extend can genetic factors and the environment, affect the development of human trait and behavior (Feldman, 1997).
In the support of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists used the studies of twins. There are two types of twins, identical twins and fraternal twins. Identical twins are from the same fertilized egg of the mother and they share the same genes as each other ( E pg 62). In addition, fraternal twins are from different egg cells and they do not share the same genes. In other words, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic contents and fraternal twins share 50 percent of the same content (Wortman, Loftus & Weaver, 1999). For example, in the study of a genetic based disorder, schizophrenia, identical twins are rated four times higher in getting the disorder than fraternal twins (Neil, 2001). From just the studies of these two types of twins, researchers could only estimate the degree of environmental influence on behavior. So in order for researchers to find out the extent of genetic influence on human behavior, identical twins of the same genetics but were raised in different environment are used.
The debate on nature versus nurture has been a mystery for years, constantly begging the question of whether human behavior, ideas, and feelings are innate or learned over time.
While not discounting that genetic tendencies may exist, supporters of the nurture theory believe they ultimately don't matter — that our behavioral aspects originate only from the environmental factors of our upbringing. Studies on infant and child temperament have revealed the most crucial evidence for nurture theories.
Another form of study in support of the nature-nurture debate is the study of adoptees. Research made has conclude that between the biological parents and adoptive parents, the adoptee is more similar to his or her biological parents (Sodorow, 1995). Adoption studies have found evidence that adopted children who share genes with their biological parents are greatly influence by genetic on their IQs (G pg 318). Similar studies have also found that adoptees share the same religious value as their biological parents rather than adoptive parents (Sodorow, 1995).
Nature, the more scientific theory of the two, is the belief that hereditary traits found in our genes make us who we are, believable but not very convincing when we consider the theory of nurture.