Showing only a quarter of the ball enhanced its larger-than-life personality and effectively
transformed it from a ball into a three-dimensional, futuristic globe.
The next challenge for the design team was to translate the off-pack design into an execution
that would work equally well on three-dimensional cans and bottles.
has heard from
fathers of teenaged boys who say they keep a freezer stocked with
the chili because the boys devour it.
Because the chili offers a quick way to make a tasty meal, the
product’s biggest users tend to be those most pressed for time.
Howlin’Coyote?’s premium pricing also means that its purchasers
are skewed toward the higher end of the income range.
so/ As a result/ are due to/The consequence of/ Owing to/one effect of/ This is because/ as/ Hence/ consequently/ The effect of/ consequent (levels)/ therefore/ (creates)/ As a result/ For this reason/ Thus/ as a consequence
Population/( uninhabitable)/ overcrowding/ teeming with people/ inhabitants/ too dense a population/ over peopled/ crowded with people/ crawling with cars/ overpopulation/ epidemic of people/ most populous nation/ overcrowded 1 hour plus writing task for homeworkMaterials (see attached)Lesson steps (numbers correspond to above)These materials are prepared by Lexy Holt a former winner of the competition.
The attached files are located under related resources at the bottom of the page at end of the article. Just left click on 'Writing skills: Cause and effect: Lesson plan'. Hope that helps.
The onestopenglish team
This presents the apparent paradox that globalwarming could actually create much colder climate in certainparts of the world. Clearly, the "gradualist" models ofwarming over the next few centuries - as publicized by the energycompanies - could be very far off the mark. Even farther fromreality is the wishful thinking that "warming" meansmore pleasant. Americans would no longer need to move to the SunBelt, rather the Sun Belt would move to them. It just isn’tthat simple.
In sum, what has been called the gloom-and-doomwarnings of the long-term effects of global warming may actuallyturn out to have been optimistic. The future could well be farmore catastrophic than is generally projected.
Other smaller changes are observed in the detailed Greenlandice cap record, but it is important to note that not all therapid changes observed in the Greenland ice cap correspond tolarge climate changes elsewhere. For example, a warming of 4deg.C per decade was observed in an ice core from northernGreenland for the 1920's (Dansgaard et al. 1989), but thiscorresponded to a global shift of 0.5 deg.C or less. For thisreason it is always desirable to have sources of evidence fromother regions before invoking a broad, dramatic climateshift.
Another, possibly neglected, factor in rapid regional orglobal climate changes may be the changes in the albedo of theland surface that result from changes in vegetation or algalcover on desert and polar desert surfaces. An initialspreading of dark-coloured soil surface algae following aparticularly warm or moist year might provide a 'kick' tothe climate system by absorbing more sunlight and thus warmingthe climate, and also reducing the dust flux from the soilsurface to the atmosphere (see below). Larger vascular plants andmosses might have the same effect on the timescale of years ordecades. The recent detailed analysis of the ending of theYounger Dryas by Taylor et al. 1997, suggests that warmingoccurred around 20 years earlier in lower latitudes
Gradualist arguments have assumed that Man couldadapt to the effects of slow global warming, with the associatedrising of sea levels and changes in agricultural growingpatterns. It is likely, though, that earth’s climate doesnot change in such gentle rhythms. A better model than thegradualist one might be plate tectonics, where stress generallysurfaces in the form of earthquakes, rather than gradual motionand shifting.
In addition to this relatively direct effect ofdeepwater on North Atlantic and Antarctic climate, other subtleeffects on global climate would be expected to result from asudden change in North Atlantic circulation, or indeed they maythemselves trigger a change in the North Atlantic circulation bytheir effects on atmospheric processes. These include theinteraction with global carbon dioxide concentrations, dustcontent and surface reflectivity.
The idea of Gulf Stream slowdowns as a mechanism in climatechange is not merely theoretical. There is actually evidencefrom the study of ocean sediments that deepwater formation in thenorth Atlantic was diminished during the sudden cold Heinrichevents and other colder phases of the last 130,000 years, andthat the process 'switched on' rapidly at times whenclimates suddenly warmed around the north Atlantic Basin. Otherdirect observations from the last few decades also suggest thatdeepwater formation off Iceland can slacken slightly in responseto a run of wet years around the Arctic Sea, with detectableeffects on the European climate. It seems that during otherrelatively cold phases that do not approach the extremeconditions of the Heinrich events, such as the Little Ice Ageevent of the last millennium, deep water formation remained inplace but that the sinking water was not as dense as it is atpresent and that a smaller volume was produced. Sinking moregently and in smaller quantities, it would have exerted less of a'pull' on the Gulf Stream circulation, and hence therewould have been a diminished heat flux northwards from the warmEquatorial Atlantic waters. During the colder glacial phases,deep water formation in the present areas between Greenland,Iceland and Norway would have ceased due to a thick cap of seaice (though there is evidence it occasionally opened up to letGulf Stream water through to the sea between Iceland and Norway,this did not result in much deepwater formation and so the pulland the northward heat flux seems to have been small). Instead,during the most intense cold phases the deepwater formation areaseems to have moved to the south of the British Isles, at theedge of the extended sea ice zone. Even here, it seems to havebeen weaker than at present, producing relatively smallquantities of rather dilute deepwater. This was probably becausethe whole surface of the Atlantic Ocean (even the tropics) wascooler; with less evaporation from its surface, even the waterthat did reach northwards was less briny (and thus less dense),so less able to sink when it reached the cold edge of the sea icezone. An initial slowdown of north Atlantic circulation maysometimes have been the initial trigger for a set of amplifyingfactors (see below) that rapidly led to a cooling of the tropicalAtlantic, reinforcing the sluggish state of the glacial-age GulfStream.
If the Gulf Stream switched off, it would not only affectEurope. Antarctica would be even colder than it is now,because much of the heat that it does receive ultimately comesfrom Gulf Stream water that sinks in the north Atlantic, travelsin a sort of river down the western side of the deep AtlanticBasin and then resurfaces just off the bays of the Antarcticcoastline. Even though it is only a few degrees above freezingwhen it reaches the surface, this water is much warmer than theadjacent Antarctic continent, helping to melt back some of thesea ice that forms around Antarctica. The effect of switching offthe deepwater heat source would be cooler air and a greater seaice extent around Antarctica, reflecting more sunlight andfurther cooling the region. However, the north Atlantic deepwater takes several hundred years to travel from its place oforigin to the Antarctic coast, so it would only produce a directeffect a few centuries after the change occurred in the North. Itis not known what delay was present in the correlated climatechanges between the north Atlantic region and Antarctica, but itis generally thought that other (relatively indirect) climatemechanisms, such as greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, linkedthese two far-flung regions and produced rather more closelysynchronized changes.