The invasion of North America from Asia (with a little migration from North America to Asia), while important, was not as dramatic as what happened in Africa a few million years later. About 24 mya, Africa and the attached Arabian Peninsula began colliding with Eurasia. The once-vast Tethys Ocean had finally been reduced to a strait between the continents, and one of Earth’s most dramatic mammalian migrations began. By about 18 mya, proboscidean had migrated from Africa and they reached North America by 16.5 mya. An left Africa but stayed in Asia. As with the North American interchange with Asia, however, the greater change came the other way. Rodents, deer, cattle, antelope, pigs, rhinos, giraffes, dogs (including the ), and cats came over, along with small insectivores and shrews. Most of the iconic large fauna of today’s African plains originated from elsewhere, particularly Asia. Asian animals invaded and dominated Europe and Africa, and became abundant in North America. In general, Asia had more diverse biomes and was the largest continent, so it developed the most competitive animals. That principle, which Darwin remarked on, became very evident when the British invaded Australia in the 18th century: imports such as rabbits and foxes quickly prevailed, and . The most important Miocene development for humans was African primate development, but that is a subject for a later chapter.
Because of early Eocene Arctic forests, animals moved freely between Asia, Europe, Greenland, and North America, which were , and great mammalian radiations occurred in the early Eocene. Many familiar mammals first appeared by the mid-Eocene, such as , elephants, , and . The may have first appeared in Asia and migrated to India, Africa, and the Americas. Europe was not yet connected with Asia, however, as the separated them. Modern observers might be startled to know where many animals originated. and lived there for more than 40 million years, until humans arrived. Their only surviving descendants in the Western Hemisphere are . As with , or , or , or Eocene mammalian migrations via polar routes, the migrants often involuntarily “sailed” on vegetation mats that crossed relatively short gaps between the continents. Such a migration depended on fortuitous prevailing currents and other factors, but it happened often enough.
What seems to explain invader and endemic success with those migrations is what kind of continent the invaders came from, what kind of continent they invaded, and the invasion route. Asia contains large arctic and tropical biomes, unlike any other continent. North America barely reaches the tropics and only a finger of South America reaches high latitudes, and well short of what would be called arctic latitudes in North America. Africa’s biomes were all tropical and near-tropical. The route to was straight across at the same latitude, so the biomes were similar. About the same is true of the route to Africa from Asia. Asian immigrants were not migrating to climates much different from what they left. But the route to North America was via , which was an Arctic route. Primates and other tropical animals could not migrate from Asia to North America via Beringia, and even fauna from temperate climates were not going to make that journey, not in Icehouse Earth conditions. Oligocene North America was geographically protected in ways that Oligocene Europe and Africa were not, and it already had substantial exchanges with Asia before and was a big continent with diverse biomes in its own right. It was not nearly as isolated as Africa, South America, and Australia were.
Polar forests reappeared in the Eocene after the , and the Eocene’s was the Cenozoic’s warmest time and . Not only did alligators live near the North Pole, but the continents and oceans hosted an abundance and diversity of life that Earth may have not seen before or since. That ten million year period ended as Earth began cooling off and headed toward the current ice age, and it has been called the original Paradise Lost. One way that methane has been implicated in those hot times is that leaves have , which regulate the air they take in to obtain carbon dioxide and oxygen, needed for photosynthesis and respiration. Plants also lose water vapor through their stomata, so balancing gas input needs against water losses are key stomata functions, and it is thought that in periods of high carbon dioxide concentration, . Scientists can count stomata density in fossil leaves, which led some scientists to conclude that carbon dioxide levels were not high enough to produce the PETM, so that produced the PETM and , and the controversy and research continues.
In the mid-Miocene cooling’s early stages, beginning about 14 mya, apes were richly spread across Eurasia and were adapted to the hardier diets that less-tropical biomes could provide, and one from Spain 13 mya . It largely lived on the ground and had a relatively upright posture. Its discovery threw previously accepted ideas of ape evolution into disarray. The idea of apes ancestral to humanity living beyond Africa is a recent one, but is gaining acceptance. Important new fossils are found with regularity, as with all areas of paleontology, but the most plentiful funding is for investigating human ancestry. A , with features common to both orangutans and African apes, led to questioning whether some key ape features are ancestral or . One early finding is still highly controversial as to where it fits into the evolutionary tree, as it had ape and monkey features but lived 10 million years after the hypothesized ape/monkey split. The great ape lineages are the subject of considerable controversy today, and the human ancestral tree is regularly shaken up with new findings.
Thank you for the thought provoking article, and I am impressed also by the comments it has evoked. There is such a broad diversity of responses to the main message of the article–that Jews must practice and publish the principle “Love your friend as yourself!” It occurs to me that the one common denominator in all the reactions, among the various respondents, whether written outright or implied, is a longing for the implementation of love in the world between all the various religions, nations, ethnicities. In the sense that this now world-famous principle of loving one another did certainly spring from the ideological tradition outlined in this article, the Jews have been a light to the nations. We all feel the sublime beauty contained in the principle. If only we could find a way to sit as equals and focus on how to manifest this state between us, what problems could not be solved? Who cares about dogmas, customs, rules, blame, etc.; it is the state of love between us that we need because it can make a place for everyone. We would do well to study the ancient texts of the ideological tradition to brought this concept to the world and discover the method of how to make it real among us in our ordinary lives. If there is a leader(s) in the science of how to make love real in the world, I would call such a messiah. One thing is certainly clear, it is only through unity that true wisdom and peace will be established, through somehow learning how to sit together and unite above all that divides us in a way that all feel heard and respected. Anyone who knows how to lead us to this, please step forward! If we Jews have the know-how in our tradition, let us unearth it and use it to heal our fractured world. It does feel as if we are “living on a powder keg and giving off sparks.”
Israel: God of all waits on your cry to him in the name of Jesus.
Your land belongs to God and not just that little piece of land your on that has the Middle East foaming like pigs that they are. But also Gaza, Egypt, Jordan, Persia “Iran” turkey, the ottoman empire. “These and more was give to Abraham, conquered by Joshua, and king David, and right in that region once stood the beginning of time and earth… the garden of Eden. Benjamin you have great wisdom and patience from God you were chosen for a time like this… Armageddon. There will be no more war after this. If you give God all the glory for every victory you bleed for. He has promised vengeance to those who oppose the apple of his eye; your enemies will be slaughtered by his wrath. There will be a time were be a time were even the powerful I.D.F. will down in two days giving the land time for refuge read the whole word of God all 66 books I am an pagan who took Christ to heart he came and promised to come back in great power, that’s why the orthodox Jews did not receive his visitation the first time. Please get right with the Christ today, they call him Yeshua. Just a taught but push Gaza into the Mediterranean sea and see if rats swim. That land shall not be divided ever, if so damnation comes on the world and Christ will come and take those who call on his name off this earth till all opposition is gone. Shalom.
I believe that every people of every race has a right of existence , but atrocities , brute force , will not be a solution . If it was so Hitler would have succeeded in eliminating the Jews . About religion no religious sect should claim themselves superior to any other. To me religion is a matter of individual belief , and nobody
should try to impose his ideologies on others . If Israel chooses to bomb hospitals , and kill children in the name of self defense, destroy entire townships and occupy lands , how are they any different from the Nazis . One atrocity cannot be justified by another . Every child and every sick in every hospital in this world has the right to live . If the middle east conflict surrounding Israel can be resolved , most terrorist activities around the world will end .
By the Archaean's end, the Sun is 80% as bright as today. Earth cools to habitable temperature. begin forming and growing. Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but . First known .
The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star. A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk. Earth’s age is estimated to be about , and formed fewer than 100 million years after the Sun did. In a after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years.
In 1973, Jews bought the apartment block I had lived in peacefully for five years. They also owned night clubs and hotels in the downtown area, this was their first residential acquisition. They began to terrorize the existing residents, thug-style, tearing up valid leases and forcing elderly people to sign new ones under threats. I wasn’t elderly, but I came home from work one day to find a 6-inch builder’s nail hammered into the eye-hole of my apartment door with a big ugly note on it: “tenant has abandoned apartment, whereabouts unknown”. My terrified Scottish neighbors had left their door open a crack waiting for me to come home. They saw it all happen, the Jews broke in, stole clothing, household items and furniture, which they hid in storage lockers in the basement. This was the technique of Messrs Mader and DeBeer to terrorize me out so they could raise the rent. I called the police. The police found my property and forced the Jews to put it back. The police filed charges. The star witness, the janitor whom the Jews used to steal my property, did not show up! The police officer in charge asked the court for a postponement, so he could bring the star witness next time. Next time, again, the star witness did not show up. The police did not even bother to subpoena him. My Scottish neighbors showed up and wanted to testify. The policeman in charge said NO! My Scottish neighbors were losing a day’s pay to attend voluntarily. When they said they would leave, the police threatened to arrest them! The police made them wait… and then the Judge said, no star witness, case closed! The Jews were in control of the legal system through the non-Jewish police — otherwise how else could this have happened? The Jews robbed me and got away with it. No justice for non-Jews on our own soil? No, not at all while Jews and their money RULE and subvert our authorities, our rights and our institutions!