Curriculum Associates has , accompanied by audio, which provides tips and strategies that teachers might use in classroom settings. In four lessons you will learn about setting expectations, procedures, rules, and consequences; reasons for and managing disruptive behavior, including how to avoid power struggles with students; how to document incidences of misbehavior objectively; and strategies for positive parent conferences on discipline issues and follow-up. There is also a free mini-course on .
One of the most striking, as well as initially appealing tome, is its strong emphasis on testing. While all processes mentiontesting, most do so with a pretty low emphasis. However XP putstesting at the foundation of development, with every programmerwriting tests as they write their production code. The tests areintegrated into a continuous integration and build process whichyields a highly stable platform for future development. XP's approachhere, often described under the heading of (TDD) has been influential even in places thathaven't adopted much else of XP.
Furthermore, the writer has done this to show off how the father was like when seeing what ___ has done and how wrong/right it was in the first place ....
Another point is that the developers must be able to make technical decisions. XP gets to the heart of this where inits planning process it states that only developers may make estimateson how much time it will take to do some work.
When you want to hire and retain good people, you have torecognize that they are competent professionals. As such they are thebest people to decide how to conduct their technical work. TheTaylorist notion of a separate planning department that decides how todo things only works if the planners understand how to do the jobbetter than those doing it. If you have bright, motivated people doingthe job then this does not hold.
One problem with this is that just trying to understand theoptions for requirements is tough. It's even tougher because thedevelopment organization usually doesn't provide cost information onthe requirements. You end up being in the situation where you may havesome desire for a sun roof on your car, but the salesman can't tellyou if it adds $10 to the cost of the car, or $10,000. Without muchidea of the cost, how can you figure out whether you want to pay forthat sunroof?
Regardless of level of experience, teachers always are challenged with how to motivate learners, particularly when you consider the extent of diversity encountered in many schools in the United States. Such diversity involves "not only ways of being but ways of knowing" and "knowing how to relate to those qualities and conditions that are different from our own and outside the groups to which we belong, yet are present in other individuals and groups" (Queensborough Community College (NY), Definition for Diversity:). Queensborough Community College also noted that learners and teachers themselves bring to the learning environment a host of variables, such as beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, self-efficacy, motivation, learning styles, habits of mind, cultural influences and demographics (e.g., male/female, sexual orientation, ethnicity, ability/disability, socio-economic status, religion/spirituality, etc.). It is certainly helpful for teachers to be aware of their personal biases, beliefs, and attitudes, as those influence interactions with learners. However, it is also important to note Hiebert and Grouws (2007) who stated, "Characteristics of teachers surely can influence their teaching, but these characteristics do not determinetheir teaching. Teachers with different characteristics can teach in essentially the same wayand vice versa" (p. 377).
In general, no. There are some software developments wherepredictability is possible. Organizations such as NASA's space shuttlesoftware group are a prime example of where software development canbe predictable. It requires a lot of ceremony, plenty of time, a largeteam, and stable requirements. There are projects out there that arespace shuttles. However I don't think much business software fits intothat category. For this you need a different kind of process.
All of this brings a few questions to mind. The first is thematter of how difficult it is to get a UML-like design into a statethat it can be handed over to programmers. The problem with a UML-likedesign is that it can look very good on paper, yet be seriously flawedwhen you actually have to program the thing. The models that civilengineers use are based on many years of practice that are enshrinedin engineering codes. Furthermore the key issues, such as the wayforces play in the design, are amenable to mathematical analysis. Theonly checking we can do of UML-like diagrams is peer review. Whilethis is helpful it leads to errors in the design that are often onlyuncovered during coding and testing. Even skilled designers, such as Iconsider myself to be, are often surprised when we turn such a designinto software.
One of the big dangers is to pretend that you can follow apredictable process when you can't. People who work on methodology arenot very good at identifying boundary conditions: the places where themethodology passes from appropriate to inappropriate. Mostmethodologists want their methodologies to be usable by everyone, sothey don't understand nor publicize their boundary conditions. Thisleads to people using a methodology in the wrong circumstances, suchas using a predictable methodology in a unpredictable situation.
In composing my essay about teaching methods and other themes, my learning was solidified, my knowledge deepened by my research and my writing skills honed....