A small-scale example of man’s inability toadjust to climate change can be seen in the steadydesertification of much of the Sahel in Africa, where the Saharahas been advancing. This has led to severe dislocation,starvation and social instability. The climatic oscillationsoutlined above would be far more widespread and devastating thananything witnessed in Africa.
Man has become dominant across Earth in a time ofnarrow climatic range, particularly since the Neolithicrevolution, the rise of agriculture. Agriculture has allowed theremarkable exponential population increase of the past 5,000years, relying upon a few crops that are adapted to the currentclimate - such as wheat, rice and corn. The daily newspaperprovides many examples of the effects of normal climaticfluctuations upon Man’s food supply, (e.g. Ethiopia andNorth Korea) especially when "abnormal" climate iscoupled with social instabilities.
Groundwater, sand and soil combine during seismic shaking to form liquefaction during a moderate to powerful earthquake. A quicksand like soil is the result of this process. When liquefaction takes place under buildings the foundations sink and the building collapse. After the earthquake has passed, the soil firms again and the water settles deeper in the ground. Areas with sandy soil and groundwater close to the surface are far more at risk of liquefaction.
In this paper, I will discus the history of earthquakes, the kinds and locations of earthquakes, earthquake effects, intensity scales, prediction, and my own predictions.
Other sudden climate transitions since the startof the Holocene: Following the sudden start of the Holoceneabout 11,000 years ago, there have been a number of sudden,widespread climate changes recorded from the palaeoclimaticrecord around the world. The most striking of these is a suddencooling event, about 8,200 years ago and giving cool, dryconditions lasting perhaps 200 years before a rapid return toconditions warmer (and generally moister) than the present. Thisevent is detectable in the Greenland ice cores, where the coolingseems to have been about half-way as severe as the YoungerDryas-to-Holocene difference. This change again hit theEuropean population hard, leaving a vacuum into which came newpeoples, when the climate again warmed. This new population wasproto-Indo-European, and likely brought into Europe thebeginnings of the Neolithic, agricultural, culture, which hadarisen in the Middle East in response to climate stress.
Persuasive writing, also known as the argument essay, utilizes logic and reason to show that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action. The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting experts.
Sometimes, there are smaller shocks that occur before (foreshock) and after (aftershock) a main earthquake (mainshock). Sometimes foreshocks are so big and scientists are unsure if it is the main shock. Foreshocks and aftershocks can occur for days, weeks and months of a main earthquake.
The dictionary meaning of the word earthquake is “shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity”.
Earthquakes are also called temblors.
It is important to understand
the earth’s makeup to help understand earthquakes better.
In this diagram, you will notice that the inner and outer core of the earth (middle part) are liquid in nature, containing iron and nickel of extreme temperatures (5,500°C).
The Mantle is semi-molten rock, also called magma. The outer is the crust, which is the hard part of the earth that forms the surface. This outer crust includes the land on which we live, the oceans and ocean deeps and anything within 40km (approx) down the earth's surface.
The information seismologists know about past earthquakes and earthquakes in general give them a limited ability to generally predict when and where earthquakes are going to occur.
Earthquakes often cause dramatic and geomorphological changes, including ground movements either vertical or horizontal along geologic fault traces, rising, dropping, and tilting of the ground surface, changes in the flow of groundwater.
Climate change may be likened to tectonic stress, that buildsup imperceptibly until the stress releases in the form of anearthquake. In the case of climate, we can see and measure someof the immediate effects, such as gradual temperature increase,but we cannot predict the :"earthquake" that mightultimately result.
In order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake you will need to examine its seismograms as recorded by three different seismic stations. On each of these seismograms you will have to measure the S - P time interval (in seconds). (In the figure above, the S - P interval is about 45 seconds. The vertical lines are placed at 2 second intervals.) The S - P time interval will then be used to determine the distance the waves have traveled from the origin to that station.
Most earthquakes result from energy being released along plate boundaries and as such “earthquakes are manifestation of earth’s dynamic nature to the fact that earth is an internally active planet” (Hough)....