Since the most dramatic instances of speciation seem to have happened in the aftermath of mass extinctions, this essay will survey extinction first. A corollary to is that if any critical nutrient falls low enough, the nutrient deficiency will not only limit growth, but the organism will be stressed. If the nutrient level falls far enough, the organism will die. A human can generally survive between one and two months without food, ten days without water, and about three minutes without oxygen. For nearly all animals, all the food and water in the world are meaningless without oxygen. Some microbes can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation, depending on the environment (which might be a very old talent), but complex life generally does not have that ability; nearly all aerobic complex life is oxygen dependent. The only exceptions are marine life which has adapted to . Birds can go where mammals cannot, , for instance, or being , due to their . If oxygen levels rise or fall very fast, many organisms will not be able to adapt, and will die.
Biologists consider extinctions to be due to failure to adapt to environmental changes, and the “environment” includes other organisms. Exactly how species go extinct is still poorly understood, but the idea that the battle for survival is a common understanding among biologists, and ecosystems . makes the relationship explicit. There are many interacting variables, including those environmental nutrients, both inorganic and those provided by life forms. The ability of an organism or species to adapt is partly dependent on how specialized it is and how unique its habitat is. Absolute numbers, geographic distribution, position in the food chain (higher in the food chain is riskier), mobility, and reproductive rates all impact extinction risk. During the , about 80% of all animals were immobile. Today, 80% of all animals are mobile. The immobile animals were at higher extinction risk, for obvious reasons.
The path to developing FE technology for public use outlined above I believe work, but there are also other ways that the Fifth Epochal Event can manifest. If I had to bet on how it will manifest, I would put my money on the struggle between the , and on their beginning to release some of their sequestered technologies. The reason why their organized suppression efforts have been so successful is that they know if of it makes it to the public, it will only be a matter of time before the dam breaks, which would probably include ETs openly interacting with humanity. The GCs know that if any of that happens, their days of ruling humanity will quickly end. That is partly why this hump has been so hard to get over. But I am not going to wait for something to happen at that level to save us all, and what I am attempting will also help form a nucleus of awareness that can greatly help with an enlightened and harmless implementation of FE. If FE makes its appearance, its implementation will need to be led by as many enlightened and informed people as possible. Some need to be ahead of the curve to lead the way, if only by promoting an enlightened awareness. Once people can see FE with their own eyes, preferably by having it delivered to their home (anything less, and ; they will not be talked into an abundance-based mentality; they must experience it), the should be pretty rapid, especially if there is already a choir singing the song of abundance.
The GCs are actively mischievous and vigilant, but any FE effort that makes them the central focus will almost certainly fail. They need to be treated as a force of nature, and respected and avoided when possible, but a storm or earthquake can always appear from nowhere, we are vulnerable to them and can only, at best, try to reduce our risk to them. If comes to dinner, you the dinner. The GCs very likely cannot be fought, negotiated with, sneaked past, or outsmarted, and anybody who tries is playing an insanely dangerous game. The GCs probably can only be made obsolete, and a world based on abundance will do that, and even they can be redeemed, which would be my ideal outcome. Brian might have said it best when he said that a successful FE effort will rely on “combined positive intention,” not the “complaint-based” orientation of protestors, the conflict-orientation of , and the like. We need to begin by aiming high and doing our best to maintain that high level, and avoid being drawn into the mire. A creator’s mindset, , is the key.
The gullibility and naïveté of those in the FE field, combined with libelers and other criminals in the ranks, are partly why, soon before he died, Brian said that if anybody brings FE to the world, it . I have either participated in, witnessed, or heard from fellow travelers all of the above approaches numerous times, and there are far more written accounts of such approaches readily available. As I watched them play out many times, it became disheartening to watch the same paths to failure doggedly pursued, often by the aspirant-of-the-hour, usually an inventor, who always thought that he had some magic formula that would work even though many thousands of his professional ancestors failed. All of those methods are ways to give our power away to someone or something else, pour the new wine into old skins, and generally act from a scarcity-based and victim-oriented perspective. None of those approaches have come close to working or are likely to. Newcomers invariably advocate some kind of shortcut, an easy path to the finish line. There are not any. The is not something that can be initiated in an afternoon, a month, or a year of effort, and I have watched many lifetimes expended in the pursuit, including mine. Nothing about this is easy, and I have helped the best of the best spend their lives trying. With a sufficient nucleus of enlightened people, it could be an easy task, but achieving that nucleus is the hard part.
Could this essay's first half be considered an indulgence of my childhood fascination with nature? That argument could have merit, but I have always been a "big picture" kind of thinker, even as a teenager. I am writing this essay primarily to help manifest FE technology in the public sphere and help remedy the deficiencies in all previous attempts that I was part of, witnessed, heard of, or read about. The biggest problem, by far, was that those trying to bring FE technology to the public had virtually no support from the very public that they sought to help. My journey's most important lesson was that , and an egocentric humanity living in scarcity and fear is almost effortlessly manipulated by the social managers. John Q. Public is only interested in FE technology to the extent that he can immediately profit from it. Otherwise, he goes back to watching his favorite TV show. It took many years of disillusionment for that to finally become clear to me. While this essay and all of my writings are provided for free to humanity and anybody can read them, I intend to only reach a very tiny fraction of humanity with my writings, but that tiny fraction will be sufficient for my plan to succeed. The readers that I seek have a formidable task ahead of them, but nothing less is required for my approach to have any hope of bearing fruit. This essay and my other writings are intended as a course in (also called "big picture") thinking. Studying the details deeply enough to avoid misleading superficial understandings is also a key goal. I am an accountant by profession, but one of the world's leading paleobiologists surprisingly read an early draft of this essay and informed me that it was one of the best efforts that he ever saw on the journey of life on Earth. There was nobody on Earth whose opinion I would have respected more than his, so I do not think that I am asking readers of this essay's first half to humor me. Every sentient being on Earth should know the rudiments of what this essay's first half covers.
Although great mass death resulted from the end-Triassic extinction, dinosaurs emerged virtually unscathed. Why? It may have been due to their superior , which could survive the hot times and record-low oxygen levels of the end-Triassic. The mammalian lung is pretty good, too, but not nearly as efficient as the saurischian dinosaurs’ air sac system. Crocodiles have a piston-lung like mammals have, so they also have a superior respiration system. Mammals rode out the storm in their burrows while crocodile ancestors cooled in the swamps and marine reptiles cooled in the oceans. Living in burrows, swamps, and other refugia is probably how mammals, crocodiles, and birds survived the when non-avian dinosaurs did not.
, a great clade of herbivorous dinosaurs, appeared , but were initially marginal dinosaurs and did not begin becoming abundant until the late Jurassic. If dinosaurs all have the same common ancestor, ornithischian dinosaurs quickly diverged, with their different hips, and so far, there is no good evidence that ornithischians breathed with the air sac system, and they became the dominant herbivores in the relatively high-oxygen Cretaceous. The ornithischian advantage was a superior eating system. Ornithischians were the only dinosaurs that chewed their food. Chewing squeezes more calories from plant matter and may be why ornithischians surpassed sauropods in the Cretaceous. Sauropods did not chew their food but had rock-filled , as birds and reptiles do today. in the late Triassic. Only rare ornithischians had gizzards. Sauropods also had the smallest proportional brains of any dinosaur. The most encephalized dinosaurs were , some of which were featured as clever killers in . Theropods were the most encephalized dinosaurs, which is an early example of predators having larger brains in order to outsmart their prey. were in second place only to theropods in encephalization and were among the most successful Cretaceous herbivores. A fascinating aspect of some ornithopods was their seeming ability to communicate by bugling with a . This kind of evidence strongly supports the idea of herd behavior in herbivorous dinosaurs. There is also evidence of a , which has been keenly contested (, ) in recent years.
The issue of avian and dinosaurian air sacs and when they evolved has been the focus of a rancorous dispute that was only recently resolved and hinged on the hollow parts of bones, which is a phenomenon called . The controversy involved dinosaur bone pneumaticity and how it may have been related to birds. In a , it was shown that birds have their most important air sacs where nobody thought they were, near a bird’s tail, not its head. Not only that, pneumatic bones are all related to the air sac system, and birds have the same pneumatic bones as saurischian dinosaurs did. The obvious implication is that the air sac system evolved in theropods and sauropods, when dinosaurs first appeared. If the air sac system appeared with the first dinosaurs, it is one more big reason why dinosaurs prevailed over the less respiratorily gifted therapsids. Such a highly effective respiration system evolving in a low-oxygen environment is a tantalizing hypothesis.
So far, this essay has dealt lightly with regional differences and largely confined the discussion to polar, temperate, and tropical conditions in the seas, and rainforest versus dryer conditions on land. While existed, barriers to species diffusion on land were relatively modest, hence dominance. But at the Triassic’s end, and continental differences in plants and animals often became significant in later times. Although the formation of Pangaea had profound impacts, because land life was relatively young, the differences and resultant changes due to the removal of oceanic barriers were less spectacular than would happen in the distant future, such as when .